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A importanciada ciência do esporte na formação de atletas olimpicos

  • Posted on:  Thursday, 20 June 2013 13:16

O corpo humano é uma máquina surpreendente! Se você levantar, passar pela porta e caminhar em torno do quarteirão, quase todos seus sistemas serão acionados, ocorrendo incontáveis eventos fisiológicos coordenados pelo cérebro controlando a passagem do estado de repouso ao exercício.

Criando a rotina de se exercitar diariamente, durante semanas ou meses, e aumentar gradualmente a duração e a intensidade de sua caminhada, você verá uma melhora do desempenho do organismo. Com isso, pode-se afirmar que o treinamento é sempre gradativo, levando o organismo a se adaptar a estímulos cada vez mais fortes, seja nível de volume ou de intensidade do treinamento.

Chegar ao nível olímpico não é tão simples. Por trás da formação de um atleta olímpico existe uma equipe formada por uma série de profissionais competentes que intervêm em vários aspectos como os nutricionais, técnicos, táticos, psicológicos, fisiológicos e biomecânicos. Para chegar ao nível que os atletas olímpicos atingiram, a ciência do esporte refinou seus saberes em relação aos conhecimentos gregos do passado. Os cientistas do esporte e técnicos têm hoje um conhecimento muito mais aprofundado e fundamentado em pesquisas científicas para ajudar atletas a controlarem seu desenvolvimento muscular e metabólico nas 29 modalidades praticadas nas olimpíadas.

O acesso a tecnologias mais avançadas, como tênis que realizam uma série de cálculos por segundo para adaptar o pé ao solo em que se encontra, roupas que diminuem o atrito com a água ou ar e várias outras novas tecnologias empregadas, melhoram a performance do atleta durante a prova. Outro fator muito importante é sem dúvida a parte psicológica do atleta, a qual estudos já comprovaram ser fundamental para a realização no rendimento do atleta durante a competição. Psicólogos do esporte hoje têm o conhecimento de que qualquer fator psicológico pode mudar o rendimento de um atleta durante a prova, como a ansiedade gerada por uma noite mal dormida ou a motivação para a final do dia seguinte.

Os atletas olímpicos também contam com profissionais da área de biomecânica, engenheiros e técnicos para poderem alcançar marcas jamais alcançadas antes, chegar a vitórias e superar recordes. Nesse aspecto, o Brasil conta com Centros de Excelência Esportiva (Cenesp), que são laboratórios destinados ao estudo dos esportes e é onde os cientistas dão suporte científico para a melhoria do treinamento do atleta. Um deles está localizado na Faculdade de Educação Física da Universidade de Brasília (UnB). ??Esses laboratórios contam com uma série de aparelhos que diagnosticam a performance do avaliado.

Um exemplo é o ergoespirômetro, que tem como função avaliar índices fisiológicos como limiares ventilatórios, capacidade cardiopulmonar e tolerância do esforço máximo. Esses instrumentos de alta precisão tecnológica, como ergômetros para braços e pernas, medidor de ácido lático sanguíneo, analisadores dos gases expirados e outros equipamentos portáteis são utilizados para avaliação em laboratório e no campo, respeitando a especificidade da modalidade praticada. Após a realização de testes, perguntamo-nos como essa “parafernalha tecnológica” ajudará atletas olímpicos a superar seus índices?

A evolução da ciência do esporte contribuiu imensamente para o desenvolvimento tecnológico de equipamentos de avaliação e acessórios esportivos, suplementos alimentares proporcionando o desenvolvimento científico de informações importantíssimas para que o técnico realize o melhor tipo de treinamento para seu atleta alcançar níveis de rendimento máximo. Esse casamento entre a ciência e a prática faz com que o cientista do esporte e o técnico tornem-se aliados na criação de um atleta de ponta.

Existem estudos que mostram o crescente interesse de pesquisadores e profissionais na busca de evidências do método Pilates aplicado em diversos âmbitos par auxiliar os atletas olímpicos. Desde a determinação do custo energético de sessões de Pilates (OLSON et al., 2004), registro da atividade eletromiográfica de músculos envolvidos em seus exercícios específicos (ESCO et al., 2004), comparação entre os seus efeitos sobre a força, flexibilidade e composição corporal aos de um programa de treinamento contra resistência convencional (OTTO et al., 2004), mapeamento de respostas cardiovasculares em alguns de seus exercícios (SCHROEDER et al., 2002), ação sobre o equilíbrio (HALL et al., 1999), efeitos sobre a dor lombar (GRAVES et al., 2005), até mesmo seus efeitos sobre a velocidade de atletas (SEWRIGHT et al., 2004), capacidade e habilidade de salto em ginastas de elite (HUTCHINSON et al., 1998) e postura de bailarinas (MCMILLAN et al., 1998) são alguns dos exemplos dos diversos estudos que têm sido empreendidos.

Ainda assim, há uma enorme lacuna que somente será preenchida com o investimento em novos estudos. Considerando a expansão do método no ambiente fisioterapêutico, do condicionamento físico e do treinamento de atletas, necessário se faz a determinação de meios de melhor controle e do estabelecimento de cargas, caracterização da ação e do envolvimento muscular nos seus diversos exercícios, efeitos de um programa básico, intermediário e avançado sobre parâmetros da aptidão física, atuação sobre desvios posturais, dentre diversos outros.

Por traz de um grande atleta existe muita tecnologia, ciência e pesquisa.

Fonte: saudeesportiva.com.br, efdeportes.com e Keila Elizabeth Fontana

Read 578873 times Last modified on Friday, 08 July 2016 00:36

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